The Research Center for Proxy Politics aims to explore and reflect upon the nature of medial networks and their actors, that is, machines and things as well as humans. The proxy, a decoy or surrogate, is today often used to designate a computer server acting as an intermediary for requests from clients. Originating in the Latin procurator, an agent representing others in a court of law, proxies are now emblematic of a post-representational political age, one increasingly populated by bot militias, puppet states, ghostwriters, and communication relays. During the period of the project (September 2014 to August 2017) the center will host a series of workshops at the Universität der Künste, Berlin, revolving around a wide range of relevant topics including the politics of digital networks, the political economy of crypto-currencies, the genealogy of networked thought, the mediality of physical landscapes and strategies of opacity. The center will also conduct material, experimental, investigations into the conception and construction of alternative networks, or alternets.

(TEXT) 25/04 2015

The Tale of Robin Hood Retold

Tiziana Terranova


Over the first week of May, timed to coincide with the opening of Expo2015 in Milan and the Biennale in Venice, a series of events will take place between the two cities. The events, organized by social centers such as MACAO and S.a.L.E. Docks, bear the title Ab-Strike: A Science-Fiction Platform for an Abstract Strike. The week-long festival composed of panels, workshops, actions and exhibitions, will address questions such as: how does one block the cultural industry? How does one damage the “event economy”? How does one overthrow the financial elite, sabotage crisis producing algorithms, and hinder the impoverishment of workers and enrichment of speculators? Is it possible to fight financial abstraction with an abstract strike?

Among the events to take place under the Ab-Strike umbrella, is a five-day workshop and action against unpaid volunteer labor at Expo2015 initiated by a strange entity named Robin Hood Asset Management Cooperative. Robin Hood claims to be “the black sheep of activist hedge funds which bends powers of finance to the production and protection of the common”. As a long-standing member of Italian autonomous nomadic institutions of higher learning and a recent member of the board of advisers to Robin Hood Cooperative, I will participate in a panel together with Adam Arvidsson, Franco Berardi BIFO, Marco Sachy of D-Cent, and Akseli Virtanen, chair of Robin Hood. I will also take part in Robin Hood’s open office, which will run between the 1st and 4th of May at MACAO together with Brett Scott (author of The Heretic’s Guide to Global Finance: Hacking the Future of Money); Benjamin Lozano (from the Speculative Materialism website); Emanuele Braga (from MACAO) and other members of Robin Hood.

What is Robin Hood about then? What is a hedge fund doing at a festival dedicated to the research and development of new forms of strikes that correspond to the conditions of hyper- precarity characterizing labor today?

As outlined in an interview with Akseli Virtanen, one of the founders and currently chair of the cooperative, Robin Hood’s genealogy takes us back to the activities of a group of young economists and PhD candidates based at the Helsinki School of Economics, which is now part of Aalto University. The narrow mindedness of the discipline of economics following the establishment of the hegemony of neoclassical economics is a well-known fact, which was suspended for a while in Finland. The freedom granted to this group to think about issues of economy, finance and organization outside of the approved conceptual framework constituted the milieu out of which Robin Hood was to emerge. The encounter with post-workerist economic thinking and post-structuralist theory, the translation of authors working in that tradition (from Antonio Negri and Christian Marazzi to Franco Berardi) and the interaction with the arts, all helped produce what seems to be an exciting intellectual endeavor, opening up new ways of thinking about the economy. Robin Hood was born out of the scattering of this thought collective and the re-establishment of the status quo. It is an attempt to translate these concepts and theories of the economy into a project that brings together precariousness and financialization in a challenging way.

Before a very recent shift towards Blockchain (a bitcoin wallet service) as a means of producing equity, the core of Robin Hood’s organization has been the parasite – an algorithm that has been trained on the data produced by the U.S. stock market over the past fifteen years. The algorithm has been developed, owned, and is operated by parasite engineer Sakari Virkki. The algorithm operates on the basis of the mimetic theory of the stock market, which has been advanced especially by French economist Andrea Orléan and US economist  Robert J. Shiller. Such theorists argue that the stock market’s valuations are not produced by an “objective” relation to the underlying asset, but by the imitation-driven behavior of market operators, considered as a decentralized network characterized by the overwhelming power of a few large hubs.  This notion, even if controversial, has already produced what many consider to be finance’s Holy Grail: consistently profiting simply by imitating the behavior of successful investors. Against all odds and all other teams and resources mobilized to achieve such result, at the moment Robin Hoods’s algorithm is actually proving to work, producing (until now) extraordinary rates of returns.

Robin Hood has been organized as a cooperative operating under Finnish law. Members pay a membership fee (two shares for a minimum value of 60 euros) and invest as much as they want into the fund. They also get to choose how much of such returns to appropriate and how much to return to the common pool. The money collected into the common pool is set aside to fund projects aiming “to produce and protect the common”. The procedure for allocating funding is experimental (at the moment, members can submit a project and a committee made of members randomly selected among volunteers decides). Robin Hood, then, claims to offer access to finance (hedging precarity), appropriating a portion of the financial flows and reinvesting them into an alternative economy. It is not part of the movement of “ethical finance”, in as much as it does not select investments on the basis of their ethical value, but aims to introduce a new kind of discourse and strategy into the debate around financialization.

Recently, a comrade asked me what was so special about Robin Hood, since the strategy of playing the stock market to make money to invest in the common is ultimately reinforcing the logic of financialization rather than supporting an alternative. This position, which is quite common amongst Marxist and leftist milieus, seems to me to be based on a reading of financialization that sees it as a kind of “false economy” which is the opposed to the real value-producing activities of labor. But what if, following the lead of post-workerist Marxism, we thought about financialization as the answer of capital to the new conditions of production of value which are no longer exclusively contained in the wage-labor relation, and hence released from the classical labor theory of value? What if financialization was the “communism of capital” as described by Christian Marazzi? That is, seeing finance as a kind of ‘black mirror’ that reflects to us, darkly, the common as the new engine of production, which demands new ways of redistributing wealth, generating liquidity and allocating funding and investments? What if the future of production is the positing of a social and economic space, which precedes the division of labor and which can no longer be just compensated by wages, but rather requires a new allocation of risk, liquidity, cash flows and optionalities?

As Robin Hood proceeds to what might be an even more controversial stance by adopting the Blockchain technologies developed by Ethereum and seeking and expansion of capital investment, it seems to me that regardless of the future, which is by-definition uncertain, RH has already reached an important achievement. I would like to recount an episode, which struck me as significant. One day, a few weeks ago, I was sitting in my flat together with two members of the initiative “Napoli per Kobane”, drafting with them our application to Robin Hood for funding to support the re-construction of the “school for democracy”, that is a space for the social development of a practice of democracy, in the regions of Rojava engaged in the struggle against ISIS. While drafting the simple exposition (just one page and a half) of the reasons why such political experiment was crucial to the development of the common. We commented on the strange feeling deriving from the possibility to access funding outside of the constraints, bureaucracies and limits of institutional organizations (from the EU to NGO), the strange elation caused by the thought that access to capital and liquidity could possibly not be mediated by capital and its minions, but self-produced. This is an incorporeal transformation, which also drives a number of other projects taking up the challenges of the relation between financialization and social cooperation (such as FairCoop and OmniCommon in Oakland, California). As Blockchain technologies relying on smart, self-enforcing contracts are set to also potentially increase the control of capital over the labor process (such as in employment contracts where payment of fees is exactly linked to performance and output), it seems important to learn how to understand this new terrain and create counter-weapons which operate at the crossing of the technical and the social, the automated and the subjective.

To join Robin Hood visit

Robin Hood Asset Management Cooperative will hold its open office in Milan between the 1st and 4th of May at MACAO.